ALL ABOUT FOOD
Food allergy or food hypersensitivity are quite uncommon. These are reactions to a protein in the food and involve the immune system. With food allergies, the body reacts to the allergen by producing an antibody knows as immunoglobulin E (IgE)...
What is it?
Coeliac disease is an extreme example of food hypersensitivity. It is the result of an immune reaction to gluten that severely injures the body, and has been called an auto-immune disease (because the body turns on itself). Gluten is the main protein in wheat, rye, barley and oasts. When someone with coeliac disease eats foods cointaing gluten, the lining of their bowel is damaged by the white blood cells of their immune system (not by antibodies as in a food allergy).
These range from none at all to nausea, wind, bloating, altered bowel habits, fatigue and even skin rashes and liver or neurological problems. It can cause vitamin and mineral deficiencies and can also cause malnutrition through weight- loss and loss of muscle mass.
The only way to treat coeliac disease is with a gluten free diet for life: no wheat, rye, barley or oats, and no products derived from them, ever.
About one in 20 people with IBS have coeliac disease.
The diagnosis of coeliac disease is through blood tests to measure certain types of antibodies that occur only in people having coelic disease. If blood test is positive then there are more test to do.
Irritable bowel syndrome is one of a group of conditions called “functional gastrointestinal disorders”. This means that they cause disturbances in the function of the gut but don’t have any identifiable physical features. The diagnosis of IBS relies upon the types of symptoms experienced and their context, such as how long they have been experienced and when they occur.
The symptoms of IBS are most commonly triggered by a food intolerance. If you suffer from IBS, you very have a food intolerance.
It says that people can be diagnosed as having IBS if they say they have suffered symptoms of a functional gut disorder for at least six months and have experienced for at least three months of the
year mid or lower abdominal pain or discomfort associated with abdominal bloating or distension, along with changes in bowel habits.
What cause IBS?
FODMAPs (Fermentable-Oligosaccharides-Disaccharides-Monosaccharides And Polyols)
Many carbhydrates in food are poorly digested and are not absorbed by the small bowel. Dietary fibre is one example.
Some fibre, know as insoluble fibre, cannot be fermented by bacteria, and other fibre, knows as soluble fibre, can be fermented by bacteria. Some sugars, oligosaccharides and sugar alchohols are also indigestible and or cannot be absorbed by the bowel, but can be broken down by intestinal bacteria to produce gas.
One way to reduce the amount of gas in the bowel is to eat minimal amount of carbohydrates, except for those that are readily digested, such as sucrose (cane sugar) or glucose.
A much better and more practical approach is to determine which carbohydrates are the major contributors to the production of gas in the bowel and to avoid them.
These are the carbohydrates that are easily and rapidly fermented by bacteria-the molecules we call FODMAPs. We know from our scientific studies that FODMAPs can cause diarrhea, gas production and excess wind. We ha also found that the LOW-FODMAP Diet reduces bloating, distension and wind in most of people.
General eating Advise
A part from following the Low-FOMDMAP Diet, there are some simple rules you can observe:
Fructans are chains of fructose molecules with a glucose molecule at the end. The main dietary source of fructans include wheat products and some vegetables (onions).
No one is able to digest fructans, and if you have IBS you should minimize your intake of them. Fructans are probably the most common FODMAP to cause symptoms of IBS, probably because most of people eat a lot of them.
HIGH – FRUCTAN FOODS (better to avoid them)
FRUITS custard apple, nectarines, persimmon, rambutan, watermelon, white peaches
VEGETABLES Artichokes, asparagus, beetroot, brussel sprouts, cabbage, chicory, dandelion leaves, fennel, garlic, leeks, okra, onions, peas, radicchio, spring onions
CEREAL, GRAINS wheat-based products, bread, pasta, couscous, crackers, biscuits , rye and barley
LEGUMES chickpeas, lentils, all the beans
DRINKS chicory-based coffee-substitues, dandelion tea
LOW-FRUCTAN ALTERNATIVES (to eat)
FRUITS all except the one mentioned before
VEGETABLES alfalfa, avocado, bamboo shoots, bean shoots, bok choy, broccoli, capsicum, carrots, cauliflower, celery, chives, choy sum, cucumber, eggplant, endive, ginger, green beans, lettuce, marrow, mushrooms, olives, parsnips, potatoes, pumpkin, snowpeas, spinach, sweet potatoes, taro, tomatoes, turnips, yams, zucchini
CEREAL, GRAINS amaranth, arrowroot, buckwheat, corn, millet, oats, potato, quinoa, rice, sorghum, tapioca
DRINKS Herbal teas and infusion
FOOD SUPPLEMENTS chia, linseed, sunflower, almond mix, nuts and seeds, oat bran, psyllium, rice
GOS, are chain molecules formed from galactose sugars joined together with a fructose and glucose at the end. Raffinose and stachyose are the most common GOS found in food. They occur in legumes, such as baked beans, lentils and chickpeas.
Like FRUCTANS, GOS cannot be digestes or absorbed by anybody and they should be avoided if you have IBS.
Only one disaccharide can potentially act as a FODMAP in food-lactose.
Lactose is a double sugar that occurs naturally in all animal milks. Made up of two digestible sugars called glucose and galactose, it is broken down in the small bowel into its component sugars by an enzyme called lactase. Lactose-intollerante people, have low levels of lactase and can only break down a very small amount of the lactose they consume.
The only important monosaccharide that can potentially act as a FODMA in food is fructose.
Fructose, a single sugar, is often referred to as the “fruit sugar”. It is found in every fruit, in honey, and high-fructose corn syrup. It is a component of sugar and is also found in some vegetables and grains. When fructose occurs with glucose, it is well absorbed because it is “piggybacked” across the bowel lining by the glucose. If fructose is found in higher concentrations than glucose, its absorption is slow or incomplete. This situation is called fructose malabsorption.
FOOD CONTAINING EXCESS FREE FRUCTOSE (to avoid)
FRUITS Apples, cherries, mangoes, nashi pears, pears, persimmon, rambutan, watermelon
VEGETABLES Sugar snap peas
HONEY all types
SWEETENERS high-fructose corn syrup, corn syrup solid, fruit juice concentrate
FOOD CONTAING LOW-FRUCTOSE OR BALANCE ALTERNATIVES (to eat)
FRUITS apricots, avocados, bananas, blackberries, blueberries, boysenberries, cranberries, cumquats, durian, grapefruit, grapes, honeydew melon, kiwifruit, lemons, limes, longons, lychees, mandarins, nectarines, oranges, passionfruit, paw paw, peaches, pineapple, plums, raspberries, rhubarb, rockmelon, star fruit, strawberries, tangelos, tomatoes
VEGETABLES all except sugar snap peas
HONEY golden syrup, maple syrup, molasses, rice syrup, treacle, yeast extract, peanut butter, cho-nut spread, jam and marmalade in small quantities
SWEETENERS sucrose (table sugar, cane sugar) including caster sugar, icing sugar, brown sugar, raw sugar, glucose
POLYOLS (sugar alcohols)
Polyols occur naturally in some fruits and vegetables. They ara often used in food manufacturing as humectants (water binging agents) and artificial sweeteners, particularly in “sugar-free” chewing gums, mints and confectionery.
Food are considered a problem for IBS sufferers if they contain more than 0.5 grams of polyols per serve.
FRUITS Apples, apricots, blackberries, cherries, longons,
Lychees, nashi pears, nectarines, pears, peaches, plums, prunes, watermelon
VEGETABLES avocados, cauliflower, mushrooms, snowpeas
SUGAR-FREE OR LOW CARB gums, mints, lollies, dairy dessert and other products containing polyol additives
ADDITIVES sorbitol (420), mannitol (421), maltitol (965), xylitol
FRUITS bananas, blueberries, boysenberries, cranberries,
Durian, grapefruit, grapes, honeydew melon, kiwifruit, lemons, limes, mandarins, mangoes, oranges,
Passionfruit, paw paw, pineapple, raspberries, rhubarb, rockmelon, star fruit, strawberries, tangelos
VEGETABLES all except avocados, cauliflower, mushrooms, snowpeas
SUGAR-FREE OR LOW CARB regular chewing gum sweetened with sugar, regular
Regular sugar sweetened mints and confectionery
ADDITIVES aspartame, saccharine, stevia
FOODS SUITABLE FOR A LOW-FODMAP DIET
FRUITS bananas, blueberries, durian, carambola, grapefruit, grapes, honeydew melon, kiwifruit, lemons, limes, mandarins,
Oranges, passionfruit, paw paw, raspberries, rockmelon,
Strawberries, tangelos, tomatoes
VEGETABLES alfalfa, bamboo shoots, beans shoots, bok choy, broccoli,
Capsicum, carrot, celery, choko, choy sum, corn, cucumber
Eggplant, green beans, lettuce, marrow, olives, parsnip
Potato, pumpkin, silverbeet, spinach, spring onion
(green part only), squash, swedes, sweet potato, taro
Tomatoes, turnips, yams
MILK PRODUCTS lactose free milk, hard cheese, including brie and
Camembert, lactose free yoghurt, butter…
GRAIN FOODS gluten free bread and cereal products, amaranth
Arrowroot, buckwheat, corn, millet, oats, polenta
Quinoa, rice, sorghum
SWEETENERS sugar, glucose, stevia, any other artificial sweeteners not
Ending in -ol
OTHER garlic- infused oil as an onion and garlic substitute,
Fresh and dried herbs and spices, chives, ginger, maple
Syrup and golden syrup as honey substitutes
If you have been diagnosed with IBS, or if you have experienced bloating and abdominal discomfort with or without a change in your bowel discomfort, you should follow the Low-FODMAP Diet. At the beginning of the diet is best to avoid all FODMAPs for at least two months. If your symptoms have improved after this time, you can, if desired, gradually reintroduce one FODMAP group at the time to see if you tolerate it.
Here some important point to keep in mind: